Loading – Surface Mining
Loading – Surface Mining
- How to minimize loading time?
- How to minimize loader cycle time?
Lay-Out of Mining Areas
- Provide sufficient operating room whenever possible
- Develop mine standards on typical operation lay-out for major equipment
- Enforce adherence to the standard designs
- Strive to improve the practice and the standards
Loading & Dumping
- Custom design the loading method to maximize loading efficiency by:
Maximizing loading rate
Minimizing truck/shovel waiting time
- Use double back-up whenever possible
- Allow sufficient room for unrestricted maneuvering
Which Is the Best for You? Customize Your Method!!!
Advantages of Double Back-up
- Overall swing angles are low
- Truck wait time used for spotting
- Dozer clean-up does not require shovel wait
- Truck travel over spillage is minimized
- Pockets of material can be selectively mined
- Faces of irregular shape easy to mine
- Trail cable is well clear of the bank
Minimize Swing Angle
Cycle Time: CAT 5130
Double Back-up: Problems
- Greater skill required of truck operator
- Half of the trucks loaded on the “blind” side
- Adequate mining area is necessary
- Not suited to low face work as frequent shovel moves are required
- As compared to drive-by:
Moves require more dozer assistance
Pit grade is more difficult to maintain
- Caters for restrictedmining areas
- Irregular shaped faceseasy to accommodate
- Pockets of materialcan be selectivelymined
- Loading on operatorside only
- Trucks easy to spot using bucket as a guide
- Minimum maneuveringfor the haulage unit
- Shovel moves areminimal through thecut
- Seam surface can beused as a roadbed
- Pit floor grade is easyto maintain
- Trucks are not required to reverse thus less tire damage
Hydraulic Shovel Mining
Not much different …
Backhoe loading – note the loader position
Backhoe: Swing Angle
Optimum work zone and the swing angle:
- For maximum production, the work zone should be limited to 150 either side of machine center or about equal to undercarriage width.
- Trucks should be positioned as close as possible to machine centerline. (Two alternatives shown here).
Should a Loader Haul Material?
(In Addition to Excavating It)
LHD Mode of Operation
- Depends on …
- ….Haulage Distance?
- ….Haul Rate?
How Far Should We Haul?
LHD mode operation
Loading: General Comments
- Minimize shovel / loader swing angle.
- Minimize truck spotting & exchange time.
- Provide sufficient room for equipment to maneuver.
- Keep the bench floor clean and level.
- Use shovel idle time to prepare the bench / face.
- Keep the power cable / other support out of the way.
- Good blasting practice is important.
- Pay attention to detail:
Drainage, light, dust, fog, etc….
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