Loading – Surface Mining

Loading – Surface Mining

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  • How to minimize loading time?
  • How to minimize loader cycle time?

Lay-Out of Mining Areas

  • Provide sufficient operating room whenever possible
  • Develop mine standards on typical operation lay-out for major equipment
  • Enforce adherence to the standard designs
  • Strive to improve the practice and the standards

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Loading & Dumping

  • Custom design the loading method to maximize loading efficiency by:

Maximizing loading rate

Minimizing truck/shovel waiting time

  • Use double back-up whenever possible
  • Allow sufficient room for unrestricted maneuvering

Loading Methods

Which Is the Best for You? Customize Your Method!!!

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Double Back-up

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Advantages of Double Back-up

  • Overall swing angles are low
  • Truck wait time used for spotting
  • Dozer clean-up does not require shovel wait
  • Truck travel over spillage is minimized
  • Pockets of material can be selectively mined
  • Faces of irregular shape easy to mine
  • Trail cable is well clear of the bank

Minimize Swing Angle

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Cycle Time: CAT 5130

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Double Back-up: Problems

  • Greater skill required of truck operator
  • Half of the trucks loaded on the “blind” side
  • Adequate mining area is necessary
  • Not suited to low face work as frequent shovel moves are required
  • As compared to drive-by:

Moves require more dozer assistance
Pit grade is more difficult to maintain

Single Back-up

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  • Caters for restricted mining areas
  • Irregular shaped faces easy to accommodate
  • Pockets of material can be selectively mined
  • Loading on operator side only
  • Trucks easy to spot using bucket as a guide

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Drive By

  • Minimum maneuvering for the haulage unit
  • Shovel moves are minimal through the cut
  • Seam surface can be used as a roadbed
  • Pit floor grade is easy to maintain
  • Trucks are not required to reverse thus less tire damage

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Hydraulic Shovel Mining

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Not much different …

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Single back-up

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Double back-up

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Direct hopper loading

Backhoe loading – note the loader position

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Backhoe Mining

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Backhoe: Swing Angle

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Optimum work zone and the swing angle:

  • For maximum production, the work zone should be limited to 150 either side of machine center or about equal to undercarriage width.
  • Trucks should be positioned as close as possible to machine centerline. (Two alternatives shown here).

Should a Loader Haul Material?
(In Addition to Excavating It)
LHD Mode of Operation

  • Depends on …
  • ….Haulage Distance?
  • ….Haul Rate?

How Far Should We Haul?

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LHD mode operation

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Loading: General Comments

  • Minimize shovel / loader swing angle.
  • Minimize truck spotting & exchange time.
  • Provide sufficient room for equipment to maneuver.
  • Keep the bench floor clean and level.
  • Use shovel idle time to prepare the bench / face.
  • Keep the power cable / other support out of the way.
  • Good blasting practice is important.
  • Pay attention to detail:

Drainage, light, dust, fog, etc….

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